Bozkurt NC, Karbek, B., Ucan B, Sahin M, Cakal E, Ozbek M, Delibasi T (2013). The Association Between Severity of Vitamin D Deficiency and Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis. Endocrine Practice; 2013 Jan 21:1-14.

Conclusions: We showed that serum 25OHD (Vitamin D) levels of patients with Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis (HT) were significantly lower than controls and severity of vitamin-D deficiency correlated with duration of HT, thyroid volume and antibody levels. These findings may suggest a potential role of 25OHD in development of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and/or its progression to hypothyroidism.



Camurdan OM, Döğer E, Bideci A, Celik N, Cinaz P. (2012).  Vitamin D status in children with Hashimoto thyroiditis.  Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism.  2012;25(5-6):467-70.  Conclusions:  The higher vitamin D deficiency rates besides lower vitamin D levels in the Hashimoto group together with the inverse correlation between vitamin D and anti-TPO suggest that vitamin D deficiency may have a role in the autoimmune process in Hashimoto thyroiditis in children.
Thyroidea Norge mener: Barn må ut og leke!



Kivity S, Agmon-Levin N, Zisappl M, Shapira Y, Nagy EV, Dankó K, Szekanecz Z, Langevitz P, Shoenfeld Y. (2011). Vitamin D and autoimmune thyroid diseases.  Cellular & Molecular Immunology; 8(3): 243-7.Conclusions:  The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was significantly higher in patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs) compared with healthy individuals, as well as in patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis compared to patients with non-AITDs. Vitamin D deficiency also correlated to the presence of antithyroid antibodies and abnormal thyroid function tests. Significantly low levels of vitamin D were documented in patients with AITDs that were related to the presence of anti thyroid antibodies and abnormal thyroid function tests, suggesting the involvement of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of AITDs and the advisability of supplementation.



McDonnell, DP, Pike, JW, O’Malley, BW (1988).  The Vitamin D receptor: A primitive steroid receptor related to thyroid hormone receptor.  Journal of Steroid Biochemistry, Volume 30, Issues 1–6, Pages 41–46.Abstract:  The vitamin D3 receptor contains a 60 amino acid portion at its carboxyl terminus (C3) which exhibits homology with the receptor for thyroid hormone. Conservation in this region of the molecule is found only between homologous or closely related receptors. This indicates a relationship between the vitamin D3 receptor and the receptor for thyroid hormone and may suggest that they evolved from a single primordial gene.


Tetsuyuki Yasuda, Yasuyuki Okamoto, Noboru Hamada, Kazuyuki Miyashita, Mitsuyoshi Takahara, Fumie Sakamoto, Takeshi Miyatsuka, Tetsuhiro Kitamura, Naoto Katakami, Dan Kawamori, Michio Otsuki, Taka-aki Matsuoka, Hideaki Kaneto, and Iichiro Shimomura (2012). Serum vitamin D levels are decreased and associated with thyroid volume in female patients with newly onset Graves’ disease.  Endocrine. 2012 December; 42(3): 739–741.

Introduction:  It has been shown that vitamin D deficiency is associated with autoimmune diseases..and that vitamin D supplementation prevents the onset and/or development of these autoimmune diseases.  Furthermore, it was reported more recently that patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis had lower vitamin D levels. In the present study, we evaluated the vitamin D status in female patients with newly onset GD and the association of serum vitamin D levels with the clinical factors related to GD.  Although further study would be necessary to conclude, these results suggest that the vitamin D status may be involved in the pathogenesis of GD.




Carmel, R, Spencer, CA (1982). Clinical and Subclinical Thyroid Disorders Associated With Pernicious Anemia.  Archives of Internal Medicine 1982;142(8):1465-1469.Abstract: Of 162 patients with pernicious anemia whom we studied, 24.1% had clinical thyroid disease; 11.7% were hypothyroid and 8.6% were hyperthyroid…We conclude that TSH screening in patients with pernicious anemia uncovers frequent abnormalities, which are superimposed on a higher coincidence of overt thyroid disease than previously described.



Jabbar A, Yawar A, Waseem S, Islam N, UI Haque N, Zuberi L, Khan A, Akhter J. (2008).  Vitamin B12 deficiency common in primary hypothyroidism. Journal of Pakistan Medical Association. May;58(5):258-61.  Conclusions:  There is a high (approx 40%) prevalence of B12 deficiency in hypothyroid patients. Traditional symptoms are not a good guide to determining presence of B12 deficiency. Screening for vitamin B12 levels should be undertaken in all hypothyroid patients, irrespective of their thyroid antibody status. Replacement of B12 leads to improvement in symptoms, although a placebo effect cannot be excluded, as a number of patients without B12 deficiency also appeared to respond to B12, administration.



Ness-Abramof, Rosane MD; Nabriski, Dan A. MD; Braverman, Lewis E. MD; Shilo, Lotan MD; Weiss, Eliahu MSc; Reshef, Tamar MSc; Shapiro, Menachem S. MD; Shenkman, Louis MD (2006). Prevalence and Evaluation of B12 Deficiency in Patients with Autoimmune Thyroid Disease.

American Journal of the Medical Sciences: Volume 332 – Issue 3; pp 119-122.  Conclusions: Patients with autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) have a high prevalence of B12 deficiency and particularly of pernicious anemia. The evaluation of B12 deficiency can be simplified by measuring fasting serum gastrin and, if elevated, referring the patient for gastroscopy.


Okuda, K., Chow, B. (1961).  The Thyroid and Absorption of Vitamin B12 in Rats. Endocrinology April 1, 1961 vol. 68 no. 4 607-615 .

Abstract:  The thyroidal influence on the absorption of vitamin B-2 is not mediated through the production of IF. A possible hormonal regulation acting directly on the intestinal wall for the absorption of vitamin B12 has been discussed.


Perros, P., Singh, RK, Ludlam, CA, Frier, BM (2000). Prevalence of pernicious anaemia in patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus and autoimmune thyroid disease.  Diabetic Medicine. Volume 17, Issue 10, pages 749-751.

Conclusions:  Patients who have both Type 1 diabetes mellitus and autoimmune thyroid disease are at risk of developing pernicious anaemia.






Beard, JL, Borel, MJ, Derr, J. (1996). Impaired thermoregulation and thyroid function in iron-deficiency anemia. The Journal of Biological Chemistry; May 1996, 271, 12017-12023.Conclusions:  We conclude that T3 can functionally regulate the iron-responsive elements binding activity of the iron regulatory protein. These observations provide evidence of a novel mechanism for T3 to up-regulate hepatic ferritin expression, which may in part contribute to the elevated serum ferritin levels seen in hyperthyroidism.



Beard J, Tobin B, Green W. (1989). Evidence for thyroid hormone deficiency in iron-deficient anemic rats. The Journal of Nutrition. [1989, 119(5):772-778] .Abstract:  Iron-deficient anemic rats have previously been shown to have low plasma levels of thyroid hormone and a poor plasma thyroid hormone response to acute cold exposure. Decreased rates of T3 production in iron-deficient anemic rats, as documented by turnover studies, may be related to decreased deiodinase activity and reduced peripheral formation of T3. The dampened TSH responses to TRH further facilitate or perpetuate this T3 deficiency. We propose that this abnormal thyroid state is partially responsible for impaired thermogenesis in iron-deficiency anemia.



Fein, HG, Rivlin, RS (1975). Anemia in thyroid diseases. Medical Clinics of North America. Sep;59(5):1133-45.

Abstract: Pernicious anemia has been strongly associated with hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and thyroiditis. Complete correction of anemia often requires restoration of thyroid function as well as specific hematinic therapy. Continued attention to hematologic status is essential in the management of patients with thyroid diseases.


Hess S, Zimmermann MB, Arnold M, Langhans, W, Hurrell, R (2002). Iron Deficiency Anemia Reduces Thyroid Peroxidase Activity in Rats.  The Journal of Nutrition. vol. 132 no. 7 1951-1955.

Abstract:  Studies in animals and humans have shown that iron deficiency anemia (IDA) impairs thyroid metabolism. However, the mechanism is not yet clear. The objective of this study was to investigate whether iron (Fe) deficiency lowers thyroid peroxidase (TPO) activity. These data indicate that Fe deficiency sharply reduces TPO activity and suggest that decreased TPO activity contributes to the adverse effects of IDA on thyroid metabolism.


Zimmermann, MB, Köhrle, J (2002). The Impact of Iron and Selenium Deficiencies on Iodine and Thyroid Metabolism: Biochemistry and Relevance to Public Health. Thyroid. October 2002, 12(10): 867-878.

Abstract:  Several minerals and trace elements are essential for normal thyroid hormone metabolism, e.g., iodine, iron, selenium, and zinc. Coexisting deficiencies of these elements can impair thyroid function. Iron deficiency impairs thyroid hormone synthesis by reducing activity of heme-dependent thyroid peroxidase. Iron-deficiency anemia blunts and iron supplementation improves the efficacy of iodine supplementation. Combined selenium and iodine deficiency leads to myxedematous cretinism.



Watts, D. L. (1989). The nutritional relationships of the thyroid. Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine, 4(3).

A number of nutritional deficiencies are known to develop in subclinical hypothyroidism. The most recognized is iron deficiency…Other related deficiencies are protein deficiency, perhaps due to accompanying hypochlorhydria; deficiency in vitamins A, C, B6,B5, B1; and mineral deficiency: phosphorus (P), manganese (Mn), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), sodium (Na), and chromium (Cr). Keyvani, et al, found that low vitamin A levels are associated with an increase in the prevalence of goiter in subjects under 18.